Besnoitia besnoiti infections activate primary bovine endothelial cells and promote PMN adhesion and NET formation under physiological flow condition
Besnoitia besnoiti is an obligate intracellular and emerging coccidian parasite of cattle that mainly infects host endothelial cells during acute infection. We here analyzed early innate immune reactions of B. besnoiti-infected primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). B. besnoiti infections significantly activated BUVEC since the gene transcripts of several adhesion molecules (P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1)), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL5), and of COX-2 were significantly upregulated during in vitro infection. Overall, the highest upregulation of most transcripts was observed at 24 or 48 h post infection (p.i.). Enhanced adhesion molecule expression in infected host cells was confirmed by PMN adhesion assays being performed under physiological flow conditions revealing a significantly increased PMN adhesion on B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers at 24 h p.i. Furthermore, we were able to illustrate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) being released by PMN under physiological flow conditions after adhesion to B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC layers. The present study shows that B. besnoiti infections of primary BUVEC induce a cascade of pro-inflammatory reactions and triggers early innate immune responses.
Maksimov, Pavlo / Hermosilla, C. / Kleinertz, S. / et al: Besnoitia besnoiti infections activate primary bovine endothelial cells and promote PMN adhesion and NET formation under physiological flow condition. 2016.
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