Recombinant virus-expressed bovine cytokines do not improve efficacy of a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine strain
Cytokines play a key role as regulators of the immune response. To elucidate whether the efficacy of a live virus vaccine can be improved by co-expression of cytokines, expression cassettes for bovine interleukins (boIL)-2, -4, -6, and -12 and bovine interferon-gamma (boIFN-gamma) were integrated into the glycoprotein E (gE)-locus of the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) vaccine virus strain GK/D. Cell culture analyses demonstrated that expression of the cytokines did not impair the replication of the recombinant viruses. To test safety and efficacy, groups of 4-6 months old BHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intranasally with the parental virus strain GK/D or the recombinants, and challenged intranasally 3 weeks later with virulent BHV-1. The animals were monitored for clinical signs, virus excretion and antibody status after vaccination and challenge. All vaccines were well tolerated and protected the immunised calves from clinical disease following challenge, and reduced duration and titres of challenge virus shedding. Calves inoculated with the boIL-6, boIL-12 and boIFN-gamma expressing recombinants showed a significant reduction in vaccine virus shedding but secreted more challenge virus than the other vaccinees. These findings indicate that expression of these cytokines mediates a better control of the vaccine virus replication which, however, interferes with the immunogenicity of the vaccine. In summary, all recombinant viruses were safe and effective, but protection afforded by the recombinants was not improved as compared to vaccination with the parental virus strain GK/D.
König, Patricia / Beer, Martin / Makoschey, B. / et al: Recombinant virus-expressed bovine cytokines do not improve efficacy of a bovine herpesvirus 1 marker vaccine strain. 2003.
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