Respiratory mechanics in conscious swine: effects of face mask, head position and bronchoconstriction evaluated by impulse oscillometry
Airway obstruction in pigs (sedated or non-sedated) fixed in a sling was studied using impulse oscillometry (IOS). (i) Vertical flexion of the pig's head was used to simulate an artificial obstruction of the upper airways. (ii) Bronchial obstruction was induced by inhaling differing quantities of an aerosol produced from 0.33% carbachol solution. The ventilatory pattern was examined by measuring respiratory rate (RR) and tidal volume (Vt). To evaluate respiratory mechanics, impedance parameters resistance (R) and reactance (X) as well as coherence (Co) were examined, each at frequencies of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 Hz. Using a simple 7-element-model introduced by J. Mead [Physiological Review 41 (1961) 281], distal respiratory resistance (Rdist), proximal airway resistance (Rprox), and additional shunt compliance (Ca) of the animal's snout and the air inside the facemask were evaluated. By fitting this model to the primary measured impedance spectra, the influence of the face mask could be eliminated in the model calculation to allow assessment of the real respiratory impedance. This recalculation made clear that the facemask had an influence on the spectral course of R and X, depending on the clinical situation, and the upper frequency range was altered the most. Under conditions of (i) upper airway obstruction, especially the X values were distorted by facemask almost over the whole frequency range. Once the data were corrected for the mask, resistance was increased across all frequencies by a fixed amount while reactance was not affected. Under (ii) bronchial airway obstruction (bronchospasm) caused the resistance spectrum to be increased mainly in the lower frequency range. This became visible in both, originally measured impedance spectra and spectra after correction of the mask influence. The reactance course (originally measured and recalculated) decreased at all frequencies during bronchospasm. Coherence over the whole frequency range was lowered at both bronchial and upper airway obstruction
KIein, C. / Smith, H.J. / : Respiratory mechanics in conscious swine: effects of face mask, head position and bronchoconstriction evaluated by impulse oscillometry. 2003.
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