Molecular and flow cytometric evaluation of pear (Pyrus L.) genetic resources of the German and Romanian national fruit collections
A total of 188 German and 28 Romanian pear accessions were evaluated using flow cytometry and molecular markers to detect homonymous and synonymous genotypes, triploids, which are not useful for breeding, and genotypes having favorable traits for breeding. Genotyping was done using a set of 11 simple sequence repeat markers proposed by the European Cooperative Program for Plant Genetic Resources, along with a standard set of six reference pear genotypes used in previous studies. The observed number of alleles ranged between 21 and 38 per locus. Twenty-three accessions could be confirmed as triploids. Because of the expected cross-incompatibility they are only of limited interest for breeding. The study confirmed that 180 of the 188 tested German accessions represent unique genotypes, while some accessions were found to be genetically identical. In parallel additional markers, which are known to be linked to resistance/susceptibility to major pathogens (e.g. black spot, aphid, fire blight, and apple scab), were applied to the German accessions. The comparative screening of the Romanian pear genetic resources demonstrated that only a few accessions with identical/very similar names to German accessions really have an identical fingerprint. Mislabeling and homonymous designation of different genotypes seems to occur frequently in different collections.
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