Diversity, genetic mapping, and signatures of domestication in the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome, as revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers
Carrot is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting carrot breeding remain limited. We developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) platform for wild and cultivated carrot and used it to investigate genetic diversity and to develop a saturated genetic linkage map of carrot. We analyzed a set of 900 DArT markers in a collection of plant materials comprising 94 cultivated and 65 wild carrot accessions. The accessions were attributed to three separate groups: wild, Eastern cultivated and Western cultivated. Twenty-seven markers showing signatures for selection were identified. They showed a directional shift in frequency from the wild to the cultivated, likely reflecting diversifying selection imposed in the course of domestication. A genetic linkage map constructed using 188 F2 plants comprised 431 markers with an average distance of 1.1 cM, divided into nine linkage groups. Using previously anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms, the linkage groups were physically attributed to the nine carrot chromosomes. A cluster of markers mapping to chromosome 8 showed significant segregation distortion. Two of the 27 DArT markers with signatures for selection were segregating in the mapping population and were localized on chromosomes 2 and 6. Chromosome 2 was previously shown to carry the Vrn1 gene governing the biennial growth habit essential for cultivated carrot. The results reported here provide background for further research on the history of carrot domestication and identify genomic regions potentially important for modern carrot breeding.