Genetic diversity and spread of Bovine Leukemia virus isolates in Argentine dairy cattle
Effective tools for use in control programmes against bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infections require insight into the relationship between the variant structure of the bovine leukaemia virus and the spatial-temporal interaction of isolates and hosts. Our study showed the presence of two types of BLV isolates - Australian and Argentine - in dairy herds from various parts of Central Argentina; these isolates were characterised by RFLP on PCR amplicons, and some of them were confirmed by sequencing. One genotype (Argentine) was present in all herds, and the Australian genotype was found in two herds. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four clusters. The first cluster was composed of the Argentine isolates and one from Brazil; the second was composed of several isolates found in European countries and one from Brazil; the third cluster was composed of BLV isolates found in Japan and Germany; the fourth cluster included American and Australian isolates and those from other countries. The comparison of a number of synonymous and non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions using various BLV genes revealed purifying selection, suggesting that molecular evolution occurred under some functional constraint.