Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress: Pseudorabies Virus can simultaneously induce nuclear envelope breakdown and exit the nucleus via the envelopment-deenvelopment-pathway
Herpesvirus replication takes place in the nucleus and in the cytosol. After entering the cell, nucleocapsids are transported to nuclear pores where viral DNA is released into the nucleus. After gene expression and DNA replication new nucleocapsids are assembled which have to exit the nucleus for virion formation in the cytosol. Since nuclear pores are not wide enough to allow passage of the nucleocapsid, nuclear egress occurs by vesicle-mediated transport through the nuclear envelope. To this end, nucleocapsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane (INM) recruiting a primary envelope which then fuses with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). In the absence of this regulated nuclear egress, mutants of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus have been described that escape from the nucleus after virus-induced nuclear envelope breakdown. Here we review these exit pathways and demonstrate that both can occur simultaneously under appropriate conditions.
Schulz, Katharina Stephanie / Klupp, Barbara / Granzow, Harald / et al: Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress: Pseudorabies Virus can simultaneously induce nuclear envelope breakdown and exit the nucleus via the envelopment-deenvelopment-pathway. 2015.
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