Diversity and frequencies of methoxypyrazines in hemolymph of Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata and their influence on the taste of wine
The study focuses on the odor-active intensity and occurrence of three methoxypyrazines in ladybird beetles, Harmonia axyridis, invasive in Europe and the USA, and Coccinella septempunctata, native in Europe, but invasive in the USA. It is known from previous studies that H. axyridis has negatively inXuenced the taste of wine in the USA because of releasing their hemolymph in must during harvesting. In relation to C. septempunctata, H. axyridis had more nitrogen containing compounds in its hemolymph and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) and mainly 2-sec-buthyl-3-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) in higher amounts. The compound IPMP was detected as the main odor-active compound in both ladybird beetle species. Wines infested with hemolymph of C. septempunctata were more readily detected as altered wine with a ‘ladybird taint’ than wines infested with H. axyridis. 2-isobuthyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) could be identiWed as second intensive odor-active compound of C. septempunctata, which occurred in a much lower frequency in H. axyridis. SBMP, the second highest measured N-compound of H. axyridis, had a lower olfactory active threshold in gas chromatography–olfactometry test. C. septempunctata contained less SBMP in its hemolymph than H. axyridis. This study objected that besides H. axyridis also C. septempunctata can inXuence the taste of wine in a detectable way.
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