Impact of the antibiotic sulfadiazine and pig manure on the microbial community structure in agricultural soils
Large amounts of veterinary antibiotics enter soil via manure of treated animals. The effects on soil microbial community structure are not well investigated. In particular, the impact of antibiotics in the presence of manure is poorly understood. In this study, two agricultural soils, a sandy Cambisol (KS) and a loamy Luvisol (ML), were spiked with manure and sulfadiazine (SDZ; 0, 10 and 100 μg g−1) and incubated for 1, 4, 32 and 61 days. Untreated controls received only water. The microbial community structure was characterised by investigating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and using PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA. The total concentration of PLFA increased with addition of manure and was reduced by both SDZ concentrations at incubation times >4 days. The SDZ addition decreased the bacteria:fungi ratio. The largest stress level, measured as ratio of PLFA (cyc17:0 + cyc19:0)/(16:1ω7c + 18:1ω7c), was found for the controls, followed by the manure treatments and the SDZ treatments. A discriminant analysis of the PLFA clearly separated treatments and incubation times. Both soils differed in total PLFA concentrations and Gram−:Gram+ ratios, but showed similar changes in PLFA pattern upon soil treatment. Effects of manure and SDZ on the bacterial community structure were also revealed by DGGE analysis. Effects on pseudomonads and β-proteobacteria were less pronounced. While community structure remained altered even after two months, the extractable concentrations of SDZ decreased exponentially and the remaining solution concentrations after 32 days were ≤27% of the spiking concentration. Our results demonstrate that a single addition of SDZ has prolonged effects on the microbial community structure in soils.