Partial characterization of the antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces antimycoticus
The paper describes experiments aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of different fungi, most of them plant pathogens and bacteria towards Streptomyces antimycoticus FZB53, a biocontrol agent that, when applied as a seed treatment, in previous studies has shown good activity against different seed-borne fungal diseases. When incorporated into agar media, the filtrate from shake cultures of S. antimycoticus FZB53 inhibited the mycelial growth or spore germination, respectively, of a broad spectrum of fungi. The most sensitive of the fungi tested was Fusarium culmorum. The inhibitory activity could be removed from the culture filtrate by extraction with ethyl acetate. When ethyl acetate extracts of the pellet and supernatant obtained by centrifugation of the shake culture were added to the agar medium, inhibition of mycelial growth of F. culmorum was restored, especially with the extracts of the pelleted biomass. Autoclaving of the culture filtrate reduced the inhibition of F. culmorum but completely eliminated the inhibitory activity against Fusarium graminearum. Among the bunt fungi tested, spore germination of Tilletia tritici was more sensitive to the culture filtrate of S. antimycoticus FZB53 than spore germination of Ustilago avenae and U. tritici. Separation by thin layer chromatography (tlc) and spraying with different reagents showed that ethyl acetate extracts from shake cultures or biomass scraped from agar media contained several hydrophobic metabolites. When eluted from the tlc-plates, the material from one of the spots had strong antifungal activity against spore germination of T. tritici and mycelial growth of F. culmorum, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts from biomass of S. antimycoticus FZB53 prevented the growth of the tested Gram-positive bacteria, namely Clavibacter michiganensis and different species of Bacillus. The results indicated that these bacteria were at least as sensitive towards the metabolites of S. antimycoticus FZB53 as F. culmorum. The tested Gram-negative bacteria were not affected.