In Focus: Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, across perspectives
In August 2008, the first detection of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, to the North America mainland in California caused great concern, as the fly was found infesting a variety of commercial fruits. Subsequent detections followed in Oregon,Washington, Florida and British Columbia in 2009; in Utah, North Carolina, South Carolina, Michigan, and Louisiana in 2010; and in Virginia, Montana, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Mexico in 2011. In Europe, it has been detected in Italy and Spain in 2009 and in France in 2010. Economic costs to the grower from D. suzukii include the increased cost of production (increased labor and materials for chemical inputs, monitoring and other management tools) and crop loss. An effective response to the invasion of D. suzukii requires proper taxonomic identification at the initial phase, understanding basic biology and phenology, developingmanagement tools, transferring information and technology quickly to user groups, and evaluating the impact of the research and extension program on an economic, social, and environmental level. As D. suzukii continues to expand its range, stepsmust be initiated in each new region to educate and inform the public as well as formulate management tactics suitable for the crops and growing conditions in each.