Isolation of Three Novel Rat and Mouse Papillomaviruses and Their Genomic Characterization
Despite a growing knowledge about the biological diversity of papillomaviruses (PV), only little is known about non-human PV in general and about PV mice models in particular. We cloned and sequenced the complete genomes of two novel PV types from the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus; RnPV2) and the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus; AsPV1) as well as a novel variant of the recently described MmuPV1 (originally designated as MusPV) from a house mouse (Mus musculus; MmuPV1 variant). In addition, we conducted phylogenetic analyses using a systematically representative set of 79 PV types, including the novel sequences. As inferred from concatenated amino acid sequences of six proteins, MmuPV1 variant and AsPV1 nested within the Beta+Xi-PV super taxon as members of the Pi-PV. RnPV2 is a member of the Iota-PV that has a distant phylogenetic position from Pi-PV. The phylogenetic results support a complex scenario of PV diversification driven by different evolutionary forces including co-divergence with hosts and adaptive radiations to new environments. PV types particularly isolated from mice and rats are the basis for new animal models, which are valuable to study PV induced tumors and new treatment options.