Urinary excretion and metabolism of procyanidins in pigs
Scope: Aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion and metabolism of procyanidins a group of secondary plant metabolites with many beneficial health effects described in literature. Methods and results: To investigate the metabolism of procyanidins in the absence of flavan-3-ols, centrifugal partition chromatography was used for their reduction in a grape seed extract to a level of almost zero. After administration of the monomer reduced grape seed extract (mredGSE) containing procyanidins B1, B2, B3, B4, C1 to pigs flavan-3-ols, their methyl derivatives, dimeric and trimeric procyanidins were determined in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Maximal concentrations of procyanidins 6 h after administration vary from 5 to 30 ng/mg creatinine. Total excretion of flavan-3-ols and their methyl derivatives indicates an increasing trend for pigs given mredGSE in comparison to pigs of the control group. Flavan-3-ols were conjugated and methylated to a great extent in comparison to dimeric and trimeric procyanidins. In the case of low molecular weight metabolites, an increasing trend was observed for hippuric acid, not for phenolic acids. Conclusions: Ratios of total excretion of procyanidins to administrated amounts between 0.004% (C1) and 0.019% (B4) suggest a poor urinary excretion by pigs. A transfer of these results to humans is possible due to their similar gastrointestinal tract.