Effects of Simultaneous Deletion of pUL11 and Glycoprotein M on Virion Maturation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1
The conserved membrane-associated tegument protein pUL11 and envelope glycoprotein M (gM) are involved in secondary envelopment of herpesvirus nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. Although deletion of either gene had only moderate effects on replication of the related alphaherpesviruses herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PrV) in cell culture, simultaneous deletion of both genes resulted in a severe impairment in virion morphogenesis of PrV coinciding with the formation of huge inclusions in the cytoplasm containing nucleocapsids embedded in tegument ( M. Kopp, H. Granzow, W. Fuchs, B. G. Klupp, and T. C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 78: 3024-3034, 2004). To test whether a similar phenotype occurs in HSV-1, a gM and pUL11 double deletion mutant was generated based on a newly established bacterial artificial chromosome clone of HSV-1 strain KOS. Since gM-negative HSV-1 has not been thoroughly investigated ultrastructurally and different phenotypes have been ascribed to pUL11-negative HSV-1, single gene deletion mutants were also constructed and analyzed. On monkey kidney ( Vero) cells, deletion of either pUL11 or gM resulted in ca.-fivefold-reduced titers and 40- to 50%-reduced plaque diameters compared to those of wild-type HSV-1 KOS, while on rabbit kidney (RK13) cells the defects were more pronounced, resulting in ca.-50-fold titer and 70% plaque size reduction for either mutant. Electron microscopy revealed that in the absence of either pUL11 or gM virion formation in the cytoplasm was inhibited, whereas nuclear stages were not visibly affected, which is in line with the phenotypes of corresponding PrV mutants. Simultaneous deletion of pUL11 and gM led to additive growth defects and, in RK13 cells, to the formation of large intracytoplasmic inclusions of capsids and tegument material, comparable to those in PrV-Delta UL11/gM-infected RK13 cells. The defects of HSV-1 Delta UL11 and HSV-1 Delta UL11/gM could be partially corrected in trans by pUL11 of PrV. Thus, our data indicate that PrV and HSV-1 pUL11 and gM exhibit similar functions in cytoplasmic steps of virion assembly
Leege, Tobias / Fuchs, Walter / Granzow, Harald / et al: Effects of Simultaneous Deletion of pUL11 and Glycoprotein M on Virion Maturation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1. 2008.
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