Pantothenic acid in ruminant nutrition: a review
Panthotenic acid (PA) is essential in metabolism due to its incorporation into coenzyme A and acyl-carrier-protein. In addition to fodder, ruminants have another PA source, as the micro-organisms in the rumen can synthesize PA. However, it has not been evaluated whether synthesis can meet the PA requirements of dairy cows. Furthermore, synthesis appears to be influenced by forage to concentrate ratio in the diet. It is not yet clear, if oral PA supplementations can increase the duodenal PA flow in dairy cows, but it has been reported that about 80% of supplemented PA disappears between the mouth and duodenum. However, supplementation of PA can increase blood PA levels. To give a general view of the actual state of research, the present review discusses the current knowledge, identifies gaps in knowledge and presents areas for future research.