The effect of FABP2 promoter haplotype on response to a diet with medium-chain triacylglycerols
The fatty-acid-binding protein-2 (FABP2) gene has been proposed as a candidate gene for diabetes because the encoded protein is involved in fatty acid absorption and therefore may affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. The rare haplotype (B) of its promoter was shown to be associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a polymorphism in the FABP2 promoter does affect the metabolic response to either an medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) or an long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) diet, which were suggested to differ in transport mechanisms, in affinity to FABP2, in activating transcription factors binding to the FABP2 promoter and in their effects on insulin sensitivity. We studied 82 healthy male subjects varying in the FABP2 promoter (42 homozygous for common haplotype (A), 40 homozygous for the rare haplotype (B)) in an interventional study with either an MCT or LCT diet over 2 weeks to examine gene-nutrient interaction. The saturation grade of MCT was adjusted to that of the LCT fat. We determined glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols (TGs), chylomicron triacylglycerols and cholesterol before and after a standardised mixed meal before and after the intervention. HDL cholesterol increased in all groups, which was most pronounced in subjects homozygous for the common promoter haplotype A who received MCT diet (P = 0.001), but not significant in homozygous rare haplotype B subjects who received MCT fat. Subjects homozygous for FABP2 haplotype A showed a significant decrease in fasting and postprandial glucose (P = 0.01, 0.04, respectively) and a decrease in insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P = 0.04) during LCT diet. After correction for multiple testing, those effects did not remain significant. Fasting and postprandial triacylglycerols, LDL cholesterol, chylomicron TGs and cholesterol were not affected by genotype or diet. MCT diet increased HDL cholesterol dependent on the FABP2 promoter haplotype. The effects of the promoter haplotype B could be mediated by PPARc, which is upregulated by mediumchain fatty acids.