Cytotoxicity of peptide-coated silver nanoparticles on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2
Silver nanoparticles are used in a wide range of consumer products such as clothing, cosmetics, household goods, articles of daily use and pesticides. Moreover, the use of a nanoscaled silver hydrosol has been requested in the European Union for even nutritional purposes. However, despite the wide applications of silver nanoparticles, there is a lack of information concerning their impact on human health. In order to investigate the eVects of silver nanoparticles on human intestinal cells, we used the Caco-2 cell line and peptide-coated silver nanoparticles with deWned colloidal, structural and interfacial properties. The particles display core diameter of 20 and 40 nm and were coated with the small peptide L-cysteine L-lysine L-lysine. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using Promegas CellTiter-Blue-« Cell Viability assay, DAPI staining and impedance measurements. Apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V/7AAD staining and FACS analysis, membrane damage with Promegas LDH assay and reactive oxygen species by dichloroXuorescein assay. Exposure of proliferating Caco-2 cells to silver nanoparticle induced decreasing adherence capacity and cytotoxicity, whereby the formation of reactive oxygen species could be the mode of action. The eVects were dependent on particle size (20, 40 nm), doses (5-100 ++g/mL) and time of incubation (4-48 h). Apoptosis or membrane damage was not detected.