The production of multiple small peptaibol families by single 14-module peptide synthetases in trichoderma/hypocrea
The most common sequences of peptaibiotics are 11-residue peptaibols found widely distributed in the genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea. Frequently associated are 14-residue peptaibols sharing partial sequence identity. Genome sequencing projects of three Trichoderma strains of the major clades reveal the presence of up to three types of nonribosomal peptide synthetases with 7, 14, or 18-20 amino acid-adding modules. Here, we provide evidence that the 14-module NRPS type found in T. virens, T. reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina), and T. atroviride produces both 11- and 14-residue peptaibols based on the disruption of the respective NRPS gene of T. reesei, and bioinformatic analysis of their amino acid-activating domains and modules. The sequences of these peptides may be predicted from the gene sequences and have been confirmed by analysis of families of 11- and 14-residue peptaibols from the strain 618, termed hypojecorins A (23 sequences determined, 4 new) and B (3 sequences determined, 2 new), and the recently established trichovirins A from T. virens. The distribution of 11- and 14-residue products is strain-specific and depends on growth conditions as well. Possible mechanisms of module skipping are discussed.
Degenkolb,T. / Karimi Aghcheh,R. / Dieckmann,R. / et al: The production of multiple small peptaibol families by single 14-module peptide synthetases in trichoderma/hypocrea. 2012.
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